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Volvo S40 (2004)

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Volvo S40

The all-new Volvo S40 is 2.2 inches shorter than its predecessor - yet it has grown in terms of product content, competitiveness and interior volume.

"We have a long history in this sedan segment. We have upgraded our cars continuously; from the Volvo 340, via the Volvo 440/460 and then the previous Volvo S40/V40. Now, we are convinced that the all-new Volvo S40 will make us grow even stronger over the next few years," says Volvo Cars President and CEO Hans-Olov Olsson.

"The new Volvo S40 combines an exciting design with exceptional road manners, making the new S40 a highly potent challenger in this segment," adds Hans-Olov Olsson.

Expanding the brand further down the age spectrum is an important part of Volvo Cars' strategy - and it is particularly important that the new S40 appeals to young buyers.

"We want to attract customers into the Volvo family as early as possible, and the all-new Volvo S40 will definitely attract younger buyers," comments Hans-Olov Olsson.

Average age of 35 in the USA

The accelerating rejuvenation process is most noticeable in the USA, where Volvo expects one-third of purchasers to be men or women without children. The average age of S40 buyers is expected to be around 30-35 years, which is low compared to the competitors.

"For a European car, this is a very low figure. It emphasizes our conviction that our new, exciting sedan has a youthful appeal," says Hans-Olov Olsson.

Volvo S40 (2004)

2004 Volvo S40

In Europe, the customer group will be somewhat older, with a quarter of sales going to pre-family buyers. In Europe, more men than women will buy the S40 compared with the USA, where the proportion of male and female buyers is expected to be more or less equal.

Annual target 70,000 cars

The all-new Volvo S40 will leave the factory towards the end of this year, and the annual sales target for 2004 is 70,000 cars.

By far the largest single market will be the USA, whose target for 2004 is 28,000 cars in the Volvo S40 series. This will be followed by Sweden (5,000), Britain (4,000), Germany (4,000) and Spain (3,000).

More for your money across the entire line-up

The all-new S40 comes with a raft of standard amenities including air conditioning, power windows and door locks. Most of the options that can be specified on the larger Volvo S80 and S60 are also available to buyers of the new Volvo S40. This applies, for instance, to the navigation system and the DSTC (Dynamic Stability and Traction Control) anti-skid system. All-wheel drive, a first for the S40, will be offered as an option in mid-2004.

There is more refinement as well. The transversely mounted 5-cylinder engines offer improved packaging efficiency and more power in the T5 model. Inside, there's more interior room than the previous S40, and convenience options such as HomeLink and an integrated compass are now offered.

Built in Belgium

The all-new Volvo S40 will be built at the Volvo Cars factory in Ghent, Belgium. Volvo's production operations in Born in the Netherlands cease with the phasing out of the previous Volvo S40 and V40 models.

Volvo Cars has invested $387 million in the Ghent factory, which when fully extended will be the company's largest production plant with an annual capacity of 270,000 cars.

The new Volvo S40 is the first in a range of new Volvo models sharing common technology. Next in line is the Volvo V50, a sports wagon that will reach showrooms in the second half of 2004.

In addition to the new Volvo S40 and Volvo V50, the Ghent factory will also build the Volvo S60, while the production of the Volvo V70 will be moved to the Torslanda factory in Göteborg, Sweden. The Volvo XC70, Volvo S80 and Volvo XC90 are also built in Torslanda.

Interior Design

"Ready for take-off! The all-new Volvo S40 is designed to express power and performance!" - These are the words of Henrik Otto, Volvo Car's Design Director. He emphasizes the crisp, sporty lines of Volvo's new sport sedan. It is a stunning four-door sedan with a dynamic design and premium-car feel.

Henrik Otto and his team obtained their inspiration from classic Scandinavian design with its clean shapes and open surfaces, airiness and intimate interplay between form and function.

Exterior evolution - interior revolution

The exterior is an evolution of Volvo Car's modern body design, while the interior is something of a revolution.

The interior is built up of several visual layers. The first layer shows as an edge trimming around the entire interior, along the side windows and the windscreen. The impression is of being safely ensconced in a cocoon.

The next layer is the instrument panel. It has a clean, uncluttered layout, with air vents and other details positioned as islands in an otherwise free area. The instrument panel has a new type of surface, a texture conveying a feel of cutting-edge technical innovation rather than classic leather-trimmed furniture. This special surface texture separates the instrument panel visually from the cabin's outer edge trim.

The instrument cluster features two round gauges, surrounded by contrasting metal bezels. This design gives a sporty, three-dimensional impression.

Distinctly Scandinavian interior

The most distinctive new feature in the passenger compartment is the unique, super-slim center stack that elegantly links the console with the instrument panel. The center stack constitutes the interior's topmost layer. It is further described in a separate press release.

There is another console in the roof, echoing the center stack and continuing the theme of the car's central nervous system.

T-Tec upholstery

The interior is available in a choice of three shades: dark gray, lava gray and dark beige. Each interior color is available together with a range of matching upholstery colors.

Leather is one of four upholstery alternatives. The most innovative upholstery is Dala, a ribbed textile with T-Tec elements and visible light-colored seams.

T-Tec is a material specially developed for Volvo and inspired by sportswear and modern travel accessories. The contrast between T-Tec and textile - along with seams in a different color - reinforces the car's dynamic appeal.

Fold-down backrests

The cab-forward design, the long wheelbase and Volvo's Intelligent Vehicle Architecture (VIVA) of transverse engine installation combine to give the new Volvo S40 a spacious cabin.

The cabin can be rearranged in the same flexible manner as in the other Volvo models. The rear seat splits into two sections and the backrests fold down. The front passenger seat comes standard with a fold-flat backrest. With all of the seats folded, the load floor is entirely flat.

A comet on the move

The all-new Volvo S40 is shorter, but at the same time wider and taller, than its predecessor, creating more interior space. The bonnet is short and there is a pronounced cab-forward profile. This eager stance, as though the car is surging ahead, creates a sensation of speed even at a standstill. At the same time it creates additional space for a long passenger cabin and generous rear-seat legroom.

"Anyone looking at the new Volvo S40 from the side gets the impression of a comet on the move. The gently rounded nose, the sweeping lines and the abrupt tail generate a vibrant sensation of speed," comments Henrik Otto.

The track and wheelbase have been extended, the front and rear overhangs reduced, virtually putting a wheel at each corner. This contributes to the sporty appearance and gives the car stable on-the-road behavior. The long wheelbase also makes it possible to fit conveniently wide rear doors.

Streamlined shape

Viewed from above, the body resembles the shape of a streamlined speedboat hull, with a rounded prow, a broad mid-ship section and a narrowing stern. Together with the broad shoulders, this hull shape forges an athletic impression, and contributes to the car's excellent aerodynamics.

The doors of the all-new Volvo S40 are convex in profile, unlike the concave shape of the doors on other Volvo models. This convex curvature reinforces the athletic appearance and enhances the cabin's width.

The windshield wipers are concealed under the trailing edge of the bonnet. There are turn signals integrated into the door mirrors, easily visible from the sides.

In order to further emphasize the sporty nature of the Volvo S40, the car can be equipped with a design package consisting of more pronounced sill moldings and spoilers.

A number of newly designed aluminum wheels are available on the options list, including an 18-inch wheel/tire combination.

Genuine Volvo identity

The all-new Volvo S40 has a profile of its own - yet maintains a clear family resemblance.

The grille, with its familiar diagonal crossmember, has a horizontal mesh pattern in a dark-gray metallic color, echoing the Volvo S60 and S80. The hood has the traditional V-shape. The body's contour lines - the classic Volvo "shoulders" along either side of the body - are also inherited from the rest of the Volvo family.

Those broad shoulders are a modern Volvo feature that signal power and safety. From the rear, the distinctive tail lamps show with the utmost clarity that what lies ahead is a Volvo.

Powertrains

The all-new Volvo S40 gets a transverse five-cylinder in-line engine - a unique feature in the segment.

This has been made possible by new methods of shrinking the engine's outer dimensions. The result is a car that offers high performance and excellent driving dynamics. The engine's compact dimensions also contribute to the car's excellent crash safety.

The chassis has been developed in parallel with the new engines so as to provide driving properties on a par with those of Volvo's other sedan models.

New engine generation of extremely compact dimensions

The new gasoline engines are a further development of the low-friction engines that power the large Volvo models. The new generation is named RNC, with C indicating Compact. Most of the engine's external components have been designed and packaged so that the engine installation takes exceptionally little space:

More space between engine and passenger compartment

The result is an engine that is 7.8 inches slimmer and 1 inch shorter than that found in the large Volvo models. This compact format makes the engine lighter. Combined with Volvo's architecture - transverse engine installation - it also contributes to enhanced crash safety since there is added space for deformation in the engine compartment.

What's also unique is that the all-new S40 went through a series of computer simulated frontal crash tests without the installed engine. The engines were then designed to fit within the empty space that remained after the simulated crash test. In a collision, the engine can be shunted up to 5.9 inches to the rear before the crankshaft comes into contact with the cross-member near the bulkhead.

There is up to 2.8 inches of free space above the engine between the cylinder head and hood. This allows the hood to crumple gently, thus reducing the risk of head injuries if the car should collide with a pedestrian or cyclist. This efficient packaging is part of Volvo's Intelligent Vehicle Architecture (VIVA).

Powerful engines for silky-smooth progress

The new five-cylinder in-line engines have a displacement of 2.4 and 2.5 liters. The five cylinders and large displacement provide high torque from low engine revs - along with swift acceleration.

What's more, a five-cylinder engine with a long stroke has a more relaxed character, owing to its low vibration level and smooth operation.

The engines in the all-new Volvo S40 share the same technology as the units that power the other Volvo cars within the lineup:

T5 turbo with All-Wheel Drive

The all-new Volvo S40 T5 is the sportiest model in the range. It has a 2.5-liter gasoline engine mated to a light-pressure turbocharger. The turbo system is tuned to provide exceptional torque from low to high revs. The high and flat torque curve ensures excellent acceleration.

The T5 engine offers a maximum of 218 hp and 236 lb.-ft. of torque.

The all-new Volvo S40 T5 will later become available with All Wheel Drive. The AWD version will be launched in mid-2004. As with other Volvo models, the S40's electronically controlled system comes from Haldex.

"All-wheel drive gives the car increased commercial prestige and gives customers a wider choice of engine-drivetrain configurations," explains Peter Ewerstrand, the project manager for the all-new Volvo S40.

Choice of two engines

In the U.S., the all-new Volvo S40 will be available with a choice of two five-cylinder engines: the normally aspirated 2.4-liter produces 168 hp and 170 lb-ft of torque while the turbocharged 2.5-liter engine produces 218 hp and 236 lb-ft of torque.

Transmissions from the R models

The six-speed manual gearbox developed for the Volvo S60 R and V70 R finds a new home in the Volvo S40 T5. The six forward ratios are spread out to combine swift acceleration with high top speed. The gearbox has triple synchromesh and a reassuringly distinct change pattern with a precise gate.

The normally aspirated engine is mated to a new generation of Volvo's five-speed manual gearbox. It has been further developed with triple synchromesh for faster changes and distinct feel.

Adaptive automatic transmission

The automatic transmission found in the S60 and V70 is offered in the new Volvo S40. It is a five-speed unit with an adaptive gear-changing pattern to automatically adjust to the driver's driving style.

Much effort has been invested in matching the halfshafts and universal joints to the high engine power outputs, virtually eliminating torque steer under hard acceleration.

Tied-down chassis with exceptional driving dynamics

The all-new Volvo S40 has been developed in the same spirit as the Volvo S60 and Volvo S80. The experience gained from the advanced Volvo S60 R formed the basis for the new S40 sport sedan.

"A modern Volvo should obey the driver's slightest command - immediately and without fuss," emphasizes Peter Ewerstrand. "It should be as enjoyable to drive as it is safe. When it comes to the new Volvo S40, we had particularly high ambitions when the project got under way. And we're more than pleased with the result."

The five-cylinder powertrain laid the foundation for the premium-car properties. The chassis development was obtained from the P2-platform models (S60, V70 and S80). Independent suspension with a multi-link system at the rear provides a superb combination of comfort and responsiveness. The wider track and longer wheelbase, compared to the current Volvo S40 model, also contribute to the car's stable behavior on the road.

The front suspension geometry has been carefully calculated to provide quick and precise steering response, enhancing the sporty appeal.

The steering is electro-hydraulic, with light, distinct and controlled steering feedback.

"The new powertrain and the carefully matched chassis in combination with the body's exceptional torsional rigidity, make for a particularly sporty and inspiring driving experience. This is a car you'll truly look forward to driving whenever you get the chance," promises Peter Ewerstrand.

Safety

The all-new Volvo S40 sets the standard in its class with extremely high safety levels - both protective and preventive, and represents an evolution of the, "You think and then you build" theme that began with the award winning XC90 sport-utility vehicle.

It's all part of Volvo's Intelligent Vehicle Architecture (VIVA), a unique approach to building a car that integrates everything from its crashworthiness, to its dynamic styling and exciting driving characteristics. This is possible due to several interacting units, including a very stiff body, a new frontal structure and a world-first intelligent system for driver information.

The safety systems have been developed and tested in the Volvo Cars Safety Center, the most advanced facility of its kind in the world. About forty full-scale tests have been performed to help ensure that all the on-board components interact, not to mention an untold number of computer crash simulations.

Crumple zones that employ different grades of steel

During the development of the all-new Volvo S40, the goal was to achieve class-leading safety utilizing a new way of thinking about how cars deform in the event of a collision.

"Our aim of building cars that are the safest in their class applies to all models, including the new Volvo S40," says Ingrid Skogsmo, head of the Volvo Cars Safety Centre.

In a collision, the preconditions for efficient deformation are critical. Since the necessary deformation is absorbed within a limited total distance, the various materials' properties must be exploited to the maximum so as to absorb as much of the incoming energy as possible.

"A tough challenge, but one that we approached in an entirely new way," confirms Ingrid Skogsmo. "We call it Volvo's Intelligent Vehicle Architecture."

The frontal body structure of the all-new Volvo S40 is divided into several zones, each with a different task in the deformation process. The outer zones are responsible for most of the deformation. The closer the collision forces get to the passenger compartment, the less the materials used deform. The intention is that the passenger compartment should remain intact in most collisions.

In order to give each zone the relevant properties, different grades of steel are used in different areas. Four different steel grades are used. In addition to conventional bodywork steel, three different grades of high-strength steel are employed: High Strength Steel, Extra High Strength Steel and Ultra High Strength Steel.

What's also unique is that the all-new S40 went through a series of computer simulated frontal crash tests without the installed engine. The engines were then designed to fit within the empty space that remained after the simulated crash test. In a real collision the engine may be shunted reward 5.9 inches before contacting the bulkhead.

This zonal system enables the collision forces to be absorbed in a highly ingenious and effective manner.

Low-speed deformation zone

The front bumper incorporates an extremely rigid crossmember of boron steel. The attachments to the longitudinal members of the body are designed in the form of 'crash boxes', which absorb the forces generated by a low-speed collision without damage to the rest of the body structure. The crash boxes can be replaced easily at reasonable cost.

High-speed deformation zone

The straight sections of the side members are made of high strength steel, a very ductile grade of material, which is optimized for high-energy absorption. This zone accounts for most of the deformation in a collision.

In addition, Volvo has opted to include upper side cross-members since they provide essential protection if the vehicle should collide, for example, with a truck platform or a loading pier.

Back-up zone

The section of cross-member that turns outward toward the A-pillar is designed to act as a barrier protecting the cabin space and as a back-up against deformation. The design also helps minimize the possibility of the front wheel from penetrating the interior, the wheel instead helping to absorb the collision forces. This section is extremely rigid and is made of extra high-strength steel.

Three-way attachment

A rigid cross-member connects the A-pillars and lower side members. On each side they form an extremely rigid three-way attachment, which helps to preserve the passenger compartment.

The new front structure is one of Volvo's many patented safety designs, and is an important part of Volvo's Intelligent Vehicle Architecture.

VIVA: Well-designed engines contribute to crash safety

Owing to efficient packaging, the engines in the all-new Volvo S40 are 7.8 inches slimmer than the 2.4- and 2.5-liter engines found in the S60 and V70. Since the engines are installed transversely, the reduced width creates greater space between the engine and passenger compartment. In a collision, the engine can be pushed up to 5.9 inches rearward before the crankshaft comes into contact with the cross-member near the bulkhead.

The steering column can be deformed up to 5.5 inches. When deformed, the steering column moves horizontally, to provide optimal airbag positioning.

In cars for the North American market the collapse function adapts to the use of the seat belt.

More solutions in common with other Volvo models:

In versions destined for the North American market, the force limiters have been designed so that their effect is tailored to suit the seat's passengers (due to the seat's fore-aft position).

VIVA: Side Impact Protection System stiffens body

The all-new Volvo S40 is 1.9 inches wider than its predecessor. This creates added space for deformation in a collision. In other respects, the Volvo S40 has the same type of side impact protection as found on the S60 and S80, with SIPS (Side Impact Protection System), side-impact airbags and inflatable curtains. These curtains are designed to provide enhanced protection in rollover accidents, by deflating extra-slowly (approximately 3 seconds).

The side airbags are larger than in the previous S40 model to provide more effective protection at the hips and chest.

Several features contribute to the stiffer body and help prevent the side from deforming in a collision:

The new Volvo S40 is designed to help provide the best possible protection in a rear-end collision as well.

Volvo's system for avoiding neck injuries - WHIPS (Whiplash Protection System) - is one of the most effective on the market. In the event of a severe impact from the rear, the seat backrest and head restraint accompany the movements of the seat occupant's body.

The seats and backrests are of a particularly robust design. They are designed to withstand high loads from items such as unsecured luggage.

Protection for other road users

The design of the all-new Volvo S40 has a front characterized by clean, smooth surfaces and rounded corners. The curves and panels are shaped to help reduce the risk of injury to pedestrians and cyclists in the event of an accident. Furthermore, the front has an energy-absorbing structure ahead of the bumper so as to help reduce the risk of leg injuries.

The hood and front fenders are designed to absorb collision energy. This helps reduce the risk of head injuries. In addition, the compact new gasoline engines leave a generous 2.8 inches of free space between the cylinder head and hood.

Built for children too

Just like the rest of the Volvo range, the all-new Volvo S40 is developed with a keen focus on children. The body's safety structure and interior safety systems are designed and dimensioned to help protect the youngest occupants too.

Both rear outer seats can be fitted with integrated child booster cushions for children above three years of age.

No child seats should be used in the front passenger seat of a vehicle equipped with a front passenger airbag. Volvo recommends that all children under the age of 12 be properly restrained in the rear seats at all times.

Stable driving properties

The body of the all-new Volvo S40 is 68 percent stiffer than that of its predecessor, thanks to advanced body design. This torsional rigidity contributes to stable, predictable and consistent handling on the road. The car's chassis design, with its broad track and long wheelbase, also has a positive effect on stability.

The suspension is fully independent, with spring struts at the front and a multilink system at the rear. The rear suspension provides a certain degree of passive steering to counteract any tendency to skid.

The new Volvo S40 can be specified with:

In mid-2004 the Volvo S40 T5 will be available with all-wheel drive. Volvo's electronically controlled AWD system distributes the torque automatically to match the road and driving style, providing stable, consistent driving characteristics.

Excellent braking

The new Volvo S40 has extremely powerful ABS brakes - with electronic brake-force distribution to the rear wheels and automatic panic-braking assistance - EBA (Emergency Brake Assistance). The front wheels feature ventilated discs. The disc size is adapted to engine power (diameter up to 16.5 inches).

Projector-type headlamps

The headlamps feature projector-type low beams. The concentrated beam of light is surrounded by a "halo" which helps oncoming drivers judge the distance to the car.

Bi-Xenon gas discharge lamps (GDL) for high and low beam are available as an option.

Additional side-mounted turn indicators in the door mirrors and integrated side-marker lights in the front and rear lamps make the Volvo S40 easy to see from the side too.

Ergonomic driver's environment

An ergonomically designed seating position with all the instruments and controls in just the right position makes for safer progress. In this respect, the Volvo S40 continues a renowned Volvo tradition. It has a comfortable and conveniently operated driver's seat, an adjustable steering wheel and a logically laid out instrument panel.

Steering wheel-mounted controls for the audio system, cruise control and navigation system add further to driving safety.

Intelligent Driver Information System

The all-new Volvo S40 introduces IDIS - the Intelligent Driver Information System.

IDIS is a feature influenced by fighter aircraft technology. The system helps the driver avoid being distracted while driving.

When the traffic requires the driver's full attention and concentration, for example when overtaking or braking, signals from the integrated GSM telephone (not available in the U.S.) and certain peripheral information are delayed until the situation is calmer. Drivers should, however, always focus their full attention and concentration whenever they are behind the wheel.

The IDIS function continuously registers the driver's activity by monitoring steering wheel movements, the accelerator pedal, turn signal function, braking and so on. This information is processed and at a given activity level, information that is not essential to safety is held back.

IDIS is standard in all versions of the all-new Volvo S40; irrespective of whether or not the car is fitted with an integrated phone (U.S. cars will not be offered with the integrated phone).

IDIS is factory-prepared for forthcoming on-board systems for information and communication. The more such functions the car has, the greater the benefit of IDIS.

SECURITY

Volvo's holistic view of safety encompasses not just Protective and Preventive safety, but also Personal Security. The all-new Volvo S40 is designed to provide effective protection for the car's occupants and their property, both while on the move and when the car is parked.

The level of theft protection is very high, as a result of close co-operation with Thatcham, the world-leading automotive research and technology centre. The all-new Volvo S40 is equipped with a number of protective functions, such as:

Careful selection of materials and technologies

The all-new Volvo S40 is built in one of the most up-to-date production plants in the world. The manufacturing methods, as well as the materials and substances used in production, are selected so as to minimize the risk to health, both to production personnel and to people outside the plant.

Examples: Chromium-free body material pretreatment, water-borne exterior paints, CFC-free materials.

The on-board technologies are designed for the minimum possible effect on the surrounding environment in the form of low exhaust emission levels.

Examples: Aluminum low-friction engines, catalytic converters with three-way technology - located close to engine, oxygen sensor (Lambdasond) both upstream and downstream of catalytic converter, and system for recovery of evaporated fuel vapour (EVAP).

As with all Volvo cars, the all-new Volvo S40 is designed for a high recycling rate.

Examples: 85 percent by weight of the materials in the car can be recycled; plastic components are marked to facilitate recycling; recycled felt and wood-fiber materials are used in certain interior trim components.

Lower fuel consumption and lower emission levels

The new petrol engines are a further development of Volvo's low-friction engines.

The manifold and turbo unit have been cast together in high-alloy cast steel that is particularly heat resistant (1050°). The manifold's design helps to reduce heat buildup around the turbo and improves the intercooler's efficiency.

As a result, the engine can be run on a leaner fuel mixture, promoting lower fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, especially when driving at high speeds.

The new plastic inlet manifold also provides positive environmental effects. The plastic material's minimal heat conducting ability leads to cooler inlet air and thus more efficient combustion.

The lambda probes are of improved design, heating up faster and activating more quickly in cold starts. This promotes lower emissions.

The radiators for the Volvo S40's five-cylinder engines feature Volvo's PremAir® system, developed in cooperation with Engelhard Corporation.

PremAir® is a system that uses a catalytic coating on the radiator. It converts up to 75 percent of the ozone passing through the radiator into harmless oxygen.

The plans include a range of Bi-Fuel engines that can be run on natural gas, biogas and petrol (not for sale in the U.S.).

Will meet the next generation of emission regulations

The five-cylinder engines have been upgraded to meet the next generation of U.S. and California emission regulations for this decade.

Those regulations are the toughest emission standards in the world and have led to new steps within emission development to handle the stringent HC, NOx and durability requirements. Volvo offers this enhanced technology for tailpipe emissions worldwide on the new five-cylinder engines.

Cleaner inside than out

Like other Volvo cars, the all-new Volvo S40 has been developed to offer its passengers a clean and healthy cabin. A pollen filter is standard. In addition, Volvo's Interior Air Quality System (IAQS) is now available as an option in the new S40. IAQS includes an activated carbon filter. It is an advanced air quality system, which automatically purifies the incoming air of impurities and odors. IAQS makes the interior air cleaner than the air outside the car.

All materials used in the interior have been selected and tested to prevent allergies and other ailments.

Example: Low PVC content in interior trim materials, chromium-free leather, nickel-free surface treatment, ÖKO-TEX-certified fabrics (the ÖKO-TEX Label is an international registered mark for testing of textiles and leather. The certification ensures that textiles and leather are hypoallergenic and free from hazardous substances).

Environmental Product Declaration available from start

Like all Volvo models, the all-new Volvo S40 comes with an environmental product declaration (EPD); something that Volvo was the first car manufacturer in the world to introduce. Volvo Car's EPD is based on a holistic approach with a focus on health, resource utilization and ecological consequences. It gives the car buyer an overview of the car's environmental impact throughout its lifetime and thus makes it easier to compare the eco-performance of Volvo's various models and engine alternatives.

Pricing

The Volvo S40 carried a manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP) of $24,190 for the normally aspirated 168 horsepower 2.4i, and $26,990 for the 218 horsepower turbocharged T5. The all-new S40 went on sale in the U.S. in the spring of 2004 as a 2004.5 model.

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